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Gastroenteritis – Sysmtoms & Treatment

Gastroenteritis

Introduction: Gastroenteritis the inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract mainly caused by viruses but also some bacteria, parasites, and fungi. More prevalent in third world countries due to unhygienic conditions. Symptoms include diarrhea, vomiting, low-grade fever, and abdominal cramps.  A self-resolving condition but can become complicated and life-threatening if severe dehydration and bloody stools occur. Antibiotics often not needed, ORS and symptomatic management, preferred to avoid any complications.

Gastroenteritis:

Gastroenteritis the inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract mainly caused by viruses (sometimes bacteria, parasites, and fungus) and characterized by diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, fever, and asthenia. Contaminated food and water can spread the infection. The infection may resolve within two weeks.

Gastroenteritis commonly resolves by itself but severe complications may develop in some cases. In some third world countries, the leading cause of infants’ death. Complications of gastroenteritis included dehydration. Vomiting for more than two days in adults and for several hours in children. High-grade fever, bloody diarrhea, blood in vomit, severe abdominal cramps, and irritability in children.

Clinical presentation, Signs, and Symptoms

Gastroenteritis predominantly caused by viruses ( Particularly rotavirus) and the bacteria E.coli and Campylobacter species. Other less common causative agents no parasites and fungi. Noninfectious agents may also cause these diseases but very uncommon. Children, immunocompromised, and people who ignore hygiene practices highly vulnerable.

Gastroenteritis is characterized by diarrhea with or without vomiting, low-grade fever, abdominal cramps, headache, and muscle pain. The symptoms start to appear between 12 and 72 hours of contacting infection and resolve by itself with 3 to 9 days. The symptoms may continue to present for weeks in children and immunocompromised individuals. If their blood in diarrhea the causative agent probably not a virus.

Gastroenteritis clinically diagnosed by the symptoms present. Blood tests are rarely needed, stool culture performed if food poisoning suspected. In very old age and young children, serum glucose level and kidney function might need to monitored.

Gastroenteritis may cause severe dehydration clinically presented by sunken eyes, irritability, poor skin turgor, and abnormal breathing. The inhabitants of the area with poor sanitation may experience repeated infections causing stunted growth and poor cognitive abilities in children.

Treatments:

Gastroenteritis is an acute, self-limiting disease. Hands washed with soap and contaminated food should avoid. Enough fluid intake advised. If there a risk of dehydration, ORS should be used. If the patient unconscious or severely dehydrated then intravenous infusion used instead of ORS.

Antibiotics not necessary except in extreme cases where the causative agent is known. Macrolide a better choice than fluoroquinolones. Antiemetic agents such as metoclopramide are used to control vomiting. Antispasmodic can prescribe sometimes but motility modulators are best avoided. A rotavirus vaccine also available and recommended by the WHO.

Conclusion:

Gastroenteritis the inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract caused by viruses, bacterias, parasites, fungi, and other nonpathogenic agents. Self-limiting disease and often don’t need any medications. As it causes diarrhea and vomiting so dehydration the main risk factor esp in children. Gastroenteritis prevented by using a rotavirus vaccine, by avoiding contaminated food and by following simple hygienic practices such as washing hands with soap.

For any further guidelines feel free to contact us

Dr. Faisal Dar Liver Clinic Quaid e Azam Hospital Islamabad.

Call us at 0333-1027351-52

Or Drop Us an Email at

info@faisaldar.com

 

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