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Category Archives: Health care

Hepatitis C Affects Human Liver

How Hepatitis C Affects Human Liver

How Hepatitis C Affects Human Liver

Hepatitis C is a chronic viral inflammation of the liver that can cause temporary or permanent liver damage. The liver damage at first in the form of liver inflammation gradually leading to scarring or fibrosis Hepatitis C Affects Human Liver.

Hepatitis C can cause the death of liver cells. This might be due to either virus-killing liver cells or immune system response to infected liver cells. Recent research shows that its combination of both factors but immune system response seems more pronounced causing much damage. The death of liver cells causes inflammatory changes in the human liver. That in turn causes enlargement of the liver (hepatomegaly). Liver enlargement seen in about 60% of patients and the leading cause of persistent pain in the liver area.

Inflammation triggers:

Inflammation triggers the processes that lead to fibrosis. Fibrosis is not a disease but is a condition caused by the body’s response to liver damage. Specific liver cells called stellate cells are triggered by Inflammation. These cells store fat and vitamin A when the liver is in a healthy condition. These cells are also responsible for blood flow regulation within the liver Hepatitis C Affects Human Liver. But when the liver inflamed by the presence of hepatitis C, a reaction occurs amongst different liver cells. This reaction leads stellate cells to dispense with vitamin A, altering their function.

Infected and inflamed liver cells:

Infected and inflamed liver cells release chemical signals called ‘cytokines’. These chemicals cause the activation of white blood cells outside the liver. The activated white blood cells travel to the liver and there in combination with specialized white cells of the liver, produce further chemical signals. These signals cause stellate cells to begin producing and laying down collagen fibers. In the extracellular matrix, which is the area between the cells.

Collagen, a fibrous protein:

Collagen, a fibrous protein is fundamental to the formation of scar tissue. The human body has the protective mechanism of limiting infection and healing of injured areas. For this purpose it uses collagen. In normal conditions when the particular injured area is healed or infection resolved the collagen is dissolved and removed from that area. The activated stellate cells then die off, allowing the tissue to return to normal. But in chronic hepatitis C, the collagen matrix grows too fast and cannot be properly dissolved. Resulting in scar tissue build up around the cells. This prevents liver cells from getting vital nutrients and oxygen from blood so they die rapidly. A never-ending cycle starts in which inflammation and fibrogenic cells stimulate each other leading to increased fibrosis.

Free Radicals and Fibrosis:

A further possible cause of fibrosis due to damage by free radicals. Free radicals are highly reactive chemical substances. They are the by-product of a cell’s normal reactions such as energy generation and the breakdown of fats. During these reactions, oxygen is transformed into the free radical superoxide. Cells with normal physiological function protection mechanisms to protect themselves from damage. Effects of free radicals but if free radicals in high concentration or cells have lost normal function. Then free radicals can cause havoc Hepatitis C Affects Human Liver.

Free radicals much concerned with hepatitis C patients due to the following reasons.
  • Chronic liver inflammation may lead to over-production of free radicals within the liver.
  • There is evidence that free radicals play a role in liver fibrosis. Free radicals can chemically alter fat in the body. This called lipid peroxidation. The free radicals attack the cell membrane and can injure and eventually kill cells. If this happens to liver cells, it will lead to fibrosis.
  • When the liver function is already impaired and there an overload of iron, the free radicals may interact with the iron causing further damage.

The liver tissues wonderful potential to regenerate, so why they do not regenerate in Hepatitis C infection.

Hepatitis C causes slow tissue damage and progressing scarring. Our liver two protective mechanisms against any damaging factor. Either their regeneration with complete restoration of the liver structure and function or there sustained scarring of liver tissue leading to damage. When the liver damaged by a single strong injury such as in donating a part of the liver. Regeneration highly likely even if a large area affected. But if the injury repetitive and the liver does not have enough time for healing from a previous injury and next injury ensues. As the case with hepatitis C infection – the liver cannot effectively cope. It does not the time and space to heal and regenerate.

Hepatitis C in Pakistan

Pakistan is enduring an HCV epidemic of historical proportions—one in every 20 Pakistanis already infected. With this infection playing a major role in liver disease burden in this country. HCV prevalence high in all risk populations with most transmission apparently driven by healthcare procedures Hepatitis C Affects Human Liver. Malpractice, misdiagnosis, use of nonsterile surgical and dental equipment, and using a single syringe more than once all are largely contributing factors. Drug abusers, sex workers, and malnourished children are high-risk groups.

Liver diseases need specific and highly specialized approach so strongly advised to consult liver clinics for any liver-related ailments. Dr. Faisal Dar Clinic, Quaid e Azam Hospital the pioneer and most trustworthy liver institute in Pakistan. That you can rely upon with peace of mind for any liver-related problems.

More about Hepatitis C:

We strive for community awareness against Hepatitis C and urge the government to make HCV treatment and prevention of national priority in Pakistan. Although the country has made efforts to increase coverage of safe injection and blood screening and to improve infection control commitment to prevention in all segments of the healthcare system, including the private sector, still the target of the complete elimination of hepatitis C seems very distant.

Dr. Faisal Dar Clinic is the most reliable and most professional liver clinic, where satisfactory diagnostic and treatment facilities of international standards are offered. For any information regarding hepatitis C and how it affects liver health, please feel free to contact us,

Dr. Faisal Dar Clinic, Quaid e Azam Hospital Islamabad

Call: 0333-1027351-52

Email: info@faisaldar.com



Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C


Hepatitis C infection, a viral infection that mainly affects the liver. It is also called viral hepatitis. During the first phase of this infection. Many people often don’t feel any symptoms or if they even feel these are mostly mild. That the reason Hepatitis C considered as “silent killer”.

Patients affected by Hepatitis C infection occasionally feel fever. Dark urine, abdominal pain, and yellow discoloration of the skin. The hepatitis C virus persists in 75 to 85 percent of patients with initial infection and may not cause any alarming symptoms. Over the course of time, the infection leads to liver damage and cirrhosis. Cirrhosis caused by chronic hepatitis C infection may lead to liver failure. liver cancer, and or dilated blood vessels in the gastrointestinal tract.

An estimated 71 million people or nearly one percent of the entire world population infected with hepatitis C as of 2017. In 2013, about eleven million new infections have been reported. Most common in Africa, Central America, and Asia. Infection of Hepatitis C claimed many lives, many of them unreported. Almost 167,000 deaths due to liver cancer and 326,000 deaths due to cirrhosis occurred in 2015 alone due to hepatitis C.

Broadly categorized Hepatitis C into the following.

Acute Hepatitis C Infection

Sudden onset and acute symptoms develop in only 20–30% of Hepatitis C infected patients. Symptoms may appear after 4-12 weeks of infection, it may take even 6 months before any symptoms are felt.

When symptoms do appear these are generally mild and nonspecific. Major symptoms may include fatigue, nausea and vomiting, fever, muscle pain, abdominal pain, diminished appetite, and weight loss. jaundice (occurs in ~25% of those infected), dark urine, and clay-colored stools. Acute Hepatitis C alone often does not cause liver failure. though it can result in liver injury and elevated liver enzymes.

If you or any of your loved ones feeling any of the above symptoms and laboratory findings are suggestive of liver disease. Please consult a specialized liver clinic. Dr. Faisal Dar Clinic Quaid e Azam Hospital a specialized liver clinic operated by highly skilled professionals and providing all liver-related services under one roof.

After the acute phase, Hepatitis C infection may resolve in 10 to 50% of patients, mainly young and females.


Chronic Infection

About 80% of patients infected with the hepatitis C virus develop a chronic infection. This is characterized by detectable viral replication for at least six months. Most people will feel no symptoms during the initial days of chronic hepatitis C infection. In limited no of patients, Chronic hepatitis C can cause fatigue and mild cognitive impairment. Chronic infection may lead to liver cirrhosis and liver cancer after several years. Fatty liver occurs in about half of patients before cirrhosis

Many as 30% of those suffering from chronic hepatitis C infection develop cirrhosis over the years. There increased risk of Cirrhosis in patients concomitantly infected with hepatitis B, HIV, in alcohol users, and those of the male gender. If chronic hepatitis C patients alcoholic the risk of cirrhosis increased 100 fold. Cirrhosis carries a very high risk of liver cancer.

More about Chronic infection

Liver cirrhosis may lead to hypertension (portal), accumulation of fluid in the abdomen,  bleeding, enlarged veins, especially in the stomach and esophagus, jaundice, and hepatic encephalopathy. Ascites or fluid in the abdomen more common in chronic hepatitis C patients. Chronic Hepatitis C also associated with other complications not related to the liver. Most common among them are autoimmune disorders such as Sjögren’s syndrome, lichen planus, a low platelet count, porphyria cutanea tarda, necrolytic acral erythema, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, diabetic nephropathy, autoimmune thyroiditis, and B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Chronic hepatitis C infection increases the risk of pancreatic cancer. Some patients may experience dry mouth or develop stones in salivary glands.

Occult Infection

In this type of Hepatitis C, infected persons may seem asymptomatic and clear from infection but the virus may still be present within their bodies. In such cases virus of hepatitis C is not detectable with conventional testing but found with ultra-sensitive specific tests. In the past liver, biopsies were performed to detect viral genome but now newer methods used successfully. These include an antibody test for the virus’ core protein and the detection of the viral genome after first concentrating the viral particles by ultracentrifugation.

Another form of hepatitis C infection reported characterized by the absence of antibodies to hepatitis C but with moderately elevated serum liver enzymes. This form as cryptogenic occult infection.

More about Occult Infection

The negative effects of occult infection appear to be less severe than with chronic infection but can vary from minimal to hepatocellular cancer. This infection presented with pretty bizarre clinical findings and often hard to diagnose, especially in countries like Pakistan. As you are aware that your health, your most precious commodity, so don’t take chances. Consult specialized liver clinic for any liver-related problems. Dr. Faisal Dar Liver Clinic your one-stop solution for all liver-related problems. Don’t hesitate to contact us and book your appointment.

For any further queries

Call 0333-1027351-52

Or drop us an email at info@faisaldar.com



Hepatitis B Virus

Hepatitis B Infection & Treatment



Hepatitis B Infection and inflammation of the liver. It can acute but often progress into chronic liver disease. Hepatitis B leads to cirrhosis, and liver failure and is the leading cause of liver-related death globally. Chronic Infection is among the most common cause also behind primary liver carcinoma. A potentially life-threatening infection and need immediate intervention.

Mode of Transmission:

Hepatitis spread from mother to child. Children under the age of five are more prone to develop chronic hepatitis Infection. Blood from an infected person also another major source of transmission of this infection. Sharing needless, used syringes, tattooing or piercing and dental procedures done with contaminated equipment can spread this infection from one person to another. There a high risk of infection in male-male sex partners and heterosexuals having multiple partners.

Any medical or surgical equipment contaminated with infected blood can transmit the Infection. Syringes sharing in drug abusers and blades contaminated with blood are potential sources of infection. The virus can survive outside the human body for at least seven days and still can be a source of infection if it enters the body of an unvaccinated person. The incubation period of the virus from 30 to 180 days.


In the early stage of hepatitis B, most people don’t feel any symptoms. After the incubation period, acute hepatitis also develops, and the patient experiences extreme fatigue. loss of appetite, fever, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, jaundice, dark urine, and abdominal pain. Hepatitis B can cause acute liver failure in some people and may progress into chronic hepatitis in others. Gradually progressing into cirrhosis and liver failure if left untreated.

Most of the adults will recover from acute hepatitis B and only 5% of infections will progress into chronic hepatitis. But this not the case with children below 6 years of age. Nearly 50% of them will suffer from chronic hepatitis after acquiring the infection. Patients with HIV often co-infected with the virus.

Hepatitis B diagnosed with the help of a blood test. Antibodies against the virus are formed in the initial stage of infection and HBsAg and IgMbecome positive. Patients are also positive for HBeAgindicating active replication of the virus.


There is no specific need for treatment in case of acute hepatitis B. Symptomatic treatment given and the patient’s condition also monitored. Dietary supplements and enough fluid intake advised. Unnecessary use of medication discouraged.

Chronic Hepatitis B needs to be treated with medicine including some antiviral drugs. Although only a few people need treatment. The timely intervention will result in the prevention of cirrhosis and reduce the incidence of liver cancer. Treatment in most people results in only suppression of the virus and not its eradication that’s why people need life long medicine for this infection. Antivirals used for it expensive and countries with a majority of the low-income population can not afford it. The best way is also prevention. Vaccines for the virus are widely available with very good protection parameters.

Hepatitis B in Pakistan:

The prevalence of hepatitis B varies among different groups of populations and different localities in Pakistan. Recent data shows HBV is more prevalent in the Afghan population and in prison inmates, professional blood donors. People with multiple drug transfusion history, health care professional, and psychiatric patients. The general population of some areas shows as much as 5% of people infected from it. These specific areas include Southern Punjab also interior Sindh, Tatta, Kurram Agency, Baltistan, and some areas of Lahore. All these areas have the highest rate of infection among its residents.

For further guidelines or quarries reach us

Dr. Faisal Dar Liver Clinic Quaid e Azam Hospital Islamabad Pakistan

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Viral Hepatitis E

Viral Hepatitis A and E


Hepatitis A and E are viral infections of the liver caused by Hepatitis A virus and Hepatitis E virus respectively. Both viruses cause acute liver infection with debilitating symptoms but progressing into advanced chronic liver diseases is very uncommon.

Mode of spread:

Both hepatitis A and E are predominantly spread through the fecal-oral route and can cause epidemic worldwide. If a healthy and unvaccinated person ingests food contaminated with a virus. He/she can develop Hepatitis A or E infection. Hepatitis A one of the most frequent causes of foodborne infection. Water or food contaminated with human fecal matter the leading cause of this infection in Pakistan. Poor sanitation, contamination of drinking water ( even a few drops of sewage mixing) can spread hepatitis A and B rapidly. Recent research in areas of Karachi shows that vegetables irrigated with the sewage water. A considerable amount of hepatitis A virus in them.

Closed contact with a person infected with hepatitis A or E, transfusion of infected blood. The male having sex with male and illicit drug use (not only injectable) other modes of spread. Immunocompromised individuals and those on immunosuppressive medication after liver transplant at a significantly higher risk of hepatitis E infection.

Viral Hepatitis A

The situation in Pakistan:

Hepatitis A and E a matter of increasing concern in Pakistan. With poor urban and rural sanitation facilities and lack of awareness among the general population. Our country a fertile ground for these infections. It estimated that 90 of Pakistani children get infected with hepatitis A before the age of 10. Adult infection ratio remained at 6.0% but has shown a sharp increase in recent years. Hepatitis A considered a self-limiting mild disease with few or no symptoms in some adults but to our dismay. An alarming number of hepatitis A related liver failure cases have reported in recent studies (Amnasubhan butt and Fatima Sharif, Euroasian journal of Hepato-Gastroenterology).

Hepatitis E showed a sporadic outbreak in areas with contaminated water in Pakistan. Up to 22% of adults and 2.4% of children found acute hepatitis due to the hepatitis E virus. The infection produced catastrophic effects on pregnant women. Resulting in maternal mortality rates ranging between 20 and 29.3 percent and perinatal mortality rate of up to 30.3 per 1000 live births(Yasmeen T, Hashmi HA, Taj A. Fetomaternal outcome with hepatitis e in pregnancy. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2013 Oct;23(10):711–714. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]).

It also shows a significant mortality rate in patients with pre-existing chronic liver disease.

Sign and symptoms:

Hepatitis A and E are acute viral infections and their symptoms may range from mild to severe. Symptoms develop usually within 2 to 6 weeks of infection. And include jaundice, severe itching, fever, weakness, diarrhea, vomiting. Pain under the right lower ribs, pale stool, and dark-colored urine. Most of these symptoms may not be present in children and jaundice particularly found to be non-existent in infected adults in Pakistan.

Treatment and Prevention:

Practice good hygiene, wash hands with soap and water after using toilets. Used clean drinkable water not only for drinking but also for doing toothpaste. Avoid improperly cooked fish and meat. Raw cooked food a great source of the hepatitis E virus. Avoid illicit drug use.

Hepatitis A and E diagnosed by the presence of antibodies in the blood and by a reversed transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction.

Both hepatitis A and E considered mild infections that will resolve within a few weeks. No treatment advised for normal healthy people. Pregnant and those with chronic liver diseases should consult their physician. Avoid self-medication, especially Paracetamol and drugs to control vomiting.

Vaccines for Hepatitis A available and very effective even in single-dose but for added immunity, two shots recommended. A vaccine for hepatitis E licensed for use in China but not available elsewhere yet.


Liver Diseases

Liver Diseases & Symptoms

Liver Diseases:

The liver is the largest organ of the human body. A functional powerhouse and a true miracle of nature’s perfect design. The liver synthesizes protein, produces hormones, detoxifies chemicals or regulates glycogen storage. And synthesize metabolites necessary for human growth and adds indigestion. With such wide and varied functions, any disease that affects the liver can devastating effects on the whole body.

The liver affected by more than 100 diseases, some with acute onset where most of the damage happens within days or weeks. Some chronic where liver damage takes place gradually in a matter of years. Most of these liver diseases cause DNA damage, accumulation of toxins in the liver. And anatomical changes and may lead to permanent damage or liver failure.

Symptoms of Liver Diseases:

There is not a single class of liver diseases so the clinical presentation and symptoms varied but most common symptoms include.

  • Jaundice
  • Confusion, disorientation, and other CNS symptoms associated with hepatic encephalopathies.
  • Thrombocytopenia and blood coagulation disorders.
  • Bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity.
  • Muscular asthenia
  • Unexplained weight loss.
  • Fever and body aches.

The liver affected by more than 100 diseases and below a few notable classes of hepatic diseases discussed in brief.

classes of hepatic diseases:
  • Parasitic diseases of the liver are common and worldwide mostly caused by a genius of liver fluke.
  • Liver infections are very common in the developing world and are often the leading, also cause of cirrhosis in Pakistan. Viral infections like viral hepatitis, ( including A, B, and C varieties) can cause much damage before any symptoms appear. These are rightly termed as silent killers as well as they go unnoticed for years. The only sure way to know about your liver health is to routinely get yourself checked by the Hepatic clinic. Dr. Faisal Dar Clinic Quaid e Azam Hospital. State of the art liver care facility and offering unmatched diagnostic, treatment, surgical and transplant facilities in Pakistan. With robust expertise and the highest qualified staff, and also you can confide in us for every matter pertaining to liver health.
  • Alcohol abuse results in the accumulation of toxins in the liver causing alcoholic hepatitis. It causes fatty liver diseases and eventually cirrhosis.
  • Some hereditary conditions can lead to liver inflammation and cause autoimmune hepatitis.
  • Various drugs, toxins, and other chemicals may cause acute or chronic liver damage. Leading to cirrhosis/liver failure.
  • More about hepatic diseases:
  • Fatty liver disease may be non-alcoholic. These are characterized by the accumulation of large amounts of triglycerides in liver tissues and mainly caused by obesity or metabolic syndrome.
  • Hereditary diseases like Wilson disease, hemochromatosis(a large amount of iron deposition in the body). And hereditary amyloidosis( faulty protein synthesis with severe cardiopathiceffects) are less common. A liver transplant the only treatment option in this condition.
  • Cirrhosis of the liver may progress to chronic liver failure, where transplant remains the only chance at life.
  • Primary liver cancer and secondary liver cancer the leading causes of liver-related deaths. Secondary liver cancer metastasized cancer from other organs such as the gastrointestinal tract, kidney, lungs, etc.
  • Primary bile cirrhosis an autoimmune disease of the bile capillaries.
  • Another serious chronic inflammatory disease of the bile duct is primary sclerosing cholangitis. The exact cause of which debated but thought to be of autoimmune origin.
  • Occlusion of the hepatic vein manifests clinically through various symptoms collectively called as Budd-Chiari syndrome.
More about the liver disease:

Many of these liver diseases can be either cured or controlled to minimize the damage effectivity if timely diagnosis takes place and treatment initiated at an early stage. Remember our liver a vital organ and we can not survive without it. It demands extra care and protection. Diagnosis and treatment facilities specifically aimed at liver health are rare in Pakistan, and your go-to health care professional may lack the required expertise that liver demands.

We at, Dr. Faisal Dar Liver Clinic Quaid e Azam Hospital Islamabadare the pioneers of liver transplant with the right team and right skill to cater to all problems pertaining to your liver. For detail guidelines, diagnostic, treatment and transplant facilities reach to us at

Dr. Faisal Dar Liver Clinic Quaid e Azam Hospital Islamabad

For appointment and Quarries contact us at


Email: info@faisaldar.com


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