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Gastroenteritis – Sysmtoms & Treatment

Introduction: Gastroenteritis the inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract mainly caused by viruses but also some bacteria, parasites, and fungi. More prevalent in third world countries due to unhygienic conditions. Symptoms include diarrhea, vomiting, low-grade fever, and abdominal cramps.  A self-resolving condition but can become complicated and life-threatening if severe dehydration and bloody stools occur. Antibiotics often not needed, ORS and symptomatic management, preferred to avoid any complications.


Gastroenteritis the inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract mainly caused by viruses (sometimes bacteria, parasites, and fungus) and characterized by diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, fever, and asthenia. Contaminated food and water can spread the infection. The infection may resolve within two weeks.

Gastroenteritis commonly resolves by itself but severe complications may develop in some cases. In some third world countries, the leading cause of infants’ death. Complications of gastroenteritis included dehydration. Vomiting for more than two days in adults and for several hours in children. High-grade fever, bloody diarrhea, blood in vomit, severe abdominal cramps, and irritability in children.

Clinical presentation, Signs, and Symptoms

Gastroenteritis predominantly caused by viruses ( Particularly rotavirus) and the bacteria E.coli and Campylobacter species. Other less common causative agents no parasites and fungi. Noninfectious agents may also cause these diseases but very uncommon. Children, immunocompromised, and people who ignore hygiene practices highly vulnerable.

Gastroenteritis is characterized by diarrhea with or without vomiting, low-grade fever, abdominal cramps, headache, and muscle pain. The symptoms start to appear between 12 and 72 hours of contacting infection and resolve by itself with 3 to 9 days. The symptoms may continue to present for weeks in children and immunocompromised individuals. If their blood in diarrhea the causative agent probably not a virus.

Gastroenteritis clinically diagnosed by the symptoms present. Blood tests are rarely needed, stool culture performed if food poisoning suspected. In very old age and young children, serum glucose level and kidney function might need to monitored.

Gastroenteritis may cause severe dehydration clinically presented by sunken eyes, irritability, poor skin turgor, and abnormal breathing. The inhabitants of the area with poor sanitation may experience repeated infections causing stunted growth and poor cognitive abilities in children.


Gastroenteritis is an acute, self-limiting disease. Hands washed with soap and contaminated food should avoid. Enough fluid intake advised. If there a risk of dehydration, ORS should be used. If the patient unconscious or severely dehydrated then intravenous infusion used instead of ORS.

Antibiotics not necessary except in extreme cases where the causative agent is known. Macrolide a better choice than fluoroquinolones. Antiemetic agents such as metoclopramide are used to control vomiting. Antispasmodic can prescribe sometimes but motility modulators are best avoided. A rotavirus vaccine also available and recommended by the WHO.


Gastroenteritis the inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract caused by viruses, bacterias, parasites, fungi, and other nonpathogenic agents. Self-limiting disease and often don’t need any medications. As it causes diarrhea and vomiting so dehydration the main risk factor esp in children. Gastroenteritis prevented by using a rotavirus vaccine, by avoiding contaminated food and by following simple hygienic practices such as washing hands with soap.

For any further guidelines feel free to contact us

Dr. Faisal Dar Liver Clinic Quaid e Azam Hospital Islamabad.

Call us at 0333-1027351-52

Or Drop Us an Email at



Paediatric Transplant

Paediatric Transplant Week & Its importance

Last week of  April observed as paediatric transplant week worldwide. Paediatric donation and transplant are sensitive issues that most people don’t want to talk about. As organ size much importance in organ transplant. So children can only benefit from organ donation from young adults or partial donations from living donor.

There are many medical conditions that can prompt to organ failure in early infancy or childhood. Most children on the transplant waiting list need kidney, heart, liver, eyes and other organs. Children can benefit from a deceased donor as well as partial organ donations from the living donor.


April is observed as ” Donate Organ, Save Life” month worldwide, and the last week of April. Specifically dedicated to creating awareness regarding pediatric transplants through various means. 

Paediatric donation and transplant are particularly sensitive, emotional and very tragic subject. Parenting is a heavenly privilege and the death of a child is a psychological trauma of unimaginable magnitude. Pediatric transplant is different from adult transplants because the size of an organ is of utmost importance in any transplant procedure and children tend to respond well to child-sized organs. In the absence of any consolidated data regarding Pakistan, we are unable to estimate how many children are in need of a transplant but unofficial data suggest that it may be north of one million children. An educational survey claims that nearly 150000 children die every year due to organ failure in Pakistan. Most pediatric patients that require life-saving transplant between the ages of 1 to 5. Every year thousand of paediatric corneas and other organ transplants are performed globally to bring light, save and heal lives.

Why Children Need Transplant:

Various diseases can progress to organ failure and many of these can prompt the need for an organ transplant as early as early infancy. Injuries and accidents might leave organ transplant the only option in many cases. Careful diagnoses and screening are necessary to evaluate the need of transplant in children. Dr. Faisal Dar Clinic pioneer in regard of child organ transplantation. With robust expertise and a dedicated professional team, you can confide in us.

The need for a pediatric transplant may arise due to various medical conditions. Major contributors discussed as follows.

Kidney Condition:

Kidney Condition that prompt to transplant are acute and chronic kidney failure. Life is precious and life of a child priceless so please keep in mind that only a professionally trained paediatric nephrologist is entitled to evaluate need of kidney transplant in children. Unfortunately malpractice, self medication and quackery is at such a scale in Pakistan, that easily treatable kidneys’s ailments advance to point of no return, where transplant remains the only option. In addition to all these malpractices our adulterated foods, unhygienic drinks and poisonous food colourants may eventually lead to kidney failure in children.

Liver conditions:

Child liver disease need professional diagnoses, treatment and follow ups. We at Dr Faisal Dar Liver clinic, Quaid e Azam Hospital Islamabad offer you these services under one roof and that too with guaranteed care so that you can reach us with the ease of mind.

Liver diseases/conditions that lead to liver failure can include metabolic diseases such as Wilson’s disease and Types 1–4 of Glycogen storage disease, acute and and chronic hepatitis, intrahepatic cholestasis, obstructive biliary tract liver disease, traumatic and post-surgical biliary tract diseases, cirrhosis, Caroli disease, congenital hepatic fibrosis, cystic fibrosis, and Budd-Chiari. Biliary atresia is the most common liver disease to require a liver transplant in children.

Heart Conditions:

Heart Conditions that often lead to cardiac transplantation in children include congenital heart diseases and cardiomyopathy. Child morbidity is several times higher in Pakistan due to misdiagnosis of the above mentioned heart conditions.

Lung Condition:

Lung Condition that prompt to organ failure may include cystic fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension.

Minor contributers:

Children suffering from advanced intestinal disease often benefit from intestinal’ tissue transplant. Corneal transplant are performed for congenital blindness, pancreas and other tissue transplants are other form of paediatric transplantation.

As with all other transplant procedures, body proportions are taken into consideration while selecting match for paediatric transplant. Very small children can benefit from organ donations by young adults. It is also possible to use living, deceased or partial organ donation for successful transplant in children.

Paediatric Transplant week give us an opportunity to educate, encourage and facilitate donors. Let’s share successful paediatric transplant stories to encourage others to heal and save lives through eye, kidney, lung and liver donations.

Reach us at Dr Faisal Dar Liver Clinic Quaid e Azam Hospital Islamabad to contribute towards the great cause of paediatric transplant, talk about the powerful message of donations, and share our stories with your friends to help honour donor and recipients families.

Liver transplant

Liver transplant, The Only Hope for Those With Little Hope of Life

Liver transplant:

Liver transplant is the only treatment option available for end-stage liver diseases. Patients of liver cancer, cirrhosis, fibrosis, and acute or chronic liver failure ultimately need liver from a donor. For many, the donated liver is the only hope of a second chance at life. Liver transplantation is a relatively new, fairly complicated, and very advanced form of life-saving surgery. Currently, both deceased and living donor liver transplants are performed globally. But the problem remains the same as for all types of organ transplants, long queues of awaiting patients with very few available livers from deceased donors. There is a large gap in no of patients waiting for liver transplant and no donors. The picture is more gloomy in third world countries like Pakistan. 

Living donor liver transplant can bridge this gap rapidly, with not only better outcomes but also with the minimum waiting time. Deceased donor liver transplant had been the classic choice for liver transplant in the past. Although carrying the added benefit of using a deceased donor’s liver for two recipients simultaneously, with the undeniable drawbacks.

  • Very few deceased donor livers are available
  • Unlike kidney failure patients, that can be put on dialysis until a donated kidney is available for transplant, liver failure lack any such option. So the only option remains, is the immediate liver transplant. Deceased donor livers are hard to find with long waiting lists, so liver transplants are prioritized according to “Model for end-stage liver disease”.
  • This priority system help reduces deaths on the waiting list but also requires patients to be critically ill ( in fact on the verge of death) to be qualified for a life-saving transplant.
  • Without a suitable and timely transplant, families have to bear the tragedy of seeing their loved ones inching near death with each passing day.

Living donor liver transplant:

Living donor liver transplant is the most viable option in such a situation. Our liver has the wonderful ability to regenerate itself. Using this potential as much as 60% of a person’s healthy liver is removed and transplanted into the recipient. Both the donor and recipient’s liver will grow to their normal size and function within a few weeks (as little as 6 weeks often). As much as 70% of the healthy liver has been removed with wonderful subsequent regeneration to its full size and potential. 

Living donor liver donations carry multiple benefits, most notable among them are

  • Most donors know their recipients, often they are family members or close friends, so the decision of donation is rapid and chances of compatibility are higher.
  • Living donations eliminates the waiting time needed for the availability of the deceased’s liver, so the patient receives a life-saving transplant before his/her condition worsens. A living donor can jump the line and turn things around. 
  • A transplant from living donations go more smoothly with fewer complications.
  • This is a gift of a lifetime, a life-saving act, a sadaqa Jaria and a source of immense reward in the hereafter.
More about liver transplant:

Despite these benefits, living donor liver donations are rare, in fact only 5% of all liver transplants. In Pakistan alone, more than 2 million (some analysts claim more than 2.5 million) will ultimately need a liver transplant. Nearly 10000 Pakistanis die of liver failure every year waiting for liver donations. This is partly because the surgery can frighten people. And largely because of misconceptions/lack of knowledge surrounding living donations.

Living donor transplant a very complicated surgery and needs robust knowledge and experience, we at Dr. Faisal Dar Liver Clinic Quaid e Azam Hospital have the expertise that is unparalleled in the local market. We pioneered living donor liver transplant, before us the only option was to travel abroad for this type of surgery.

Living donor liver transplant does not carry any risk in itself and the matching criteria are straightforward. Anybody between the ages of 18 to 55, sufficiently healthy, not extremely obese. And with blood group matching the recipient can volunteer for donation. Studies show that long term outcomes for both donor and recipients are good or better. There is no evidence that liver donations shortens the life span or increases the chances of liver diseases of the donor in any form.

Details for liver transplant donor:

This April Let’s pledge to Clear our doubts and misconceptions about living donor liver donations, encourage our friends and families. Educate the masses about the utmost importance of liver donations. Liver transplant surgery speaks volumes, see the nearly dead patients after successful liver transplant, and you will not recognize them, looking like new people, color in their faces, muscle mass, enthusiastic, vigorous, energetic, and teeming with new hope of a new life. To see what happens with the miracle and generosity of living donation is unbelievable.

For any information and further assistance please contact us

Dr. Faisal Dar Liver clinic Quaid e Azam Hospital Islamabad

Phone: 0333 -1027351-52

E.mail: info@faisaldar.com

Facebook: dr.faisaldar

Contact details for appointments

Contact details for appointments from Dr Faisal Dar and Team
Post transplant patients: 0346-5938256 & 03331027354
New Patients and E-clinic 0333-1027351, 0333-1027352 and 0333-1027357
24 Hours help line: 0333-1027356

insulin injection



There are days in life when you feel like your life is stuck. When you unable to perform any task or when you just stop building or coping up with the social relationships in your life. You start being less productive in your professional space and dull at home. Our daily life functions, in fact, our entire routine depends on how good our body functions. Good health such a vast term that includes the physical, mental, and as well as emotional wellbeing of a person. These are all molded together & considered as one aspect of good health.

Good health and fitness are precious blessings of Allah but not everybody blessed with this gift. Also, we only realize its importance only when we fall sick even if it’s temporary. One should always thankful to Allah almighty for this very gift but should also try to maintain it from one’s own end.

With this amazing advancement in technology. our medicine also revolutionized and there are hardly any diseases that incurable. we found our angel in disguise i.e. doctors which are playing a vital role in the diagnosis and treatments of the diseases. Here particularly we shall talk about the treatment of diabetes. The disease that sucks the energy out of a person and becomes a lifestyle disease. It actually causes an abnormal amount of increased glucose in your blood level. Which treated differently according to your type of the disease, either Type 1 or Type 2. For the non-insulin-dependent patients. oral medications prescribed and for insulin-dependent patients. Insulin shots injected into the patients. The administration of correct insulin injections is really very important. One should know the exact units or amount of insulin being injected and the right location of the injection.

– Detailed Insights

According to Dr. Abdus Samad Shera (the Director-General of Diabetic Association Pakistan). Around 80% of diabetic patients receiving the wrong amount of insulin in Pakistan. Which gets so worse that it leads towards cutting off of arms or legs. It also leads to hypo and hyperglycemia. He also said that people often misguided by the nurses or the stuff. About the correct site of the location due to which the patients stay unaware of it and keep injecting at the wrong place.

One should keep a regular check on their blood sugar level and should aware of the amount of insulin being used. Lions of Pakistan done a lot of awareness campaigns about the disease. Support Lions and help those who can’t afford the treatment. Let’s make our country healthier and prosperous together!

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