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Colorectal Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment Options


Colorectal Cancer is posing the risk of cancer-related death in Pakistani youth. We need to create awareness in society and medical professionals alike. Any bleed from Anus or other risk factors should not overlook in young patients. Early diagnosis plays a crucial role in the successful treatment of colorectal cancer. The diagnostic approach is based upon Family and personal history. Thorough physical checkup, colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, and Barium x-ray. Treatment of CRC dependent upon several factors, age, overall health status, and stage of the disease. And may include either use of single or multiple treatment options of chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation. Every treatment procedure carries no side effects, most commonly, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, loss of appetite, anemia, fatigue, dizziness, hair loss, and elevated body temperatures.

Diagnosis and Treatment Options

Dr. Faisal Dar and His team at Quaid e Azam Hospital Islamabad. Celebrating March 2020 as Colorectal Cancer awareness month. This article part of our awareness series and aimed at educating Pakistani society about the increased risk of Colorectal Cancer. 

Early diagnosis of Colorectal Cancer is very crucial as the end-stage disease is very difficult to treat with very poor prognosis. Early screening helps us in the removal of pre-cancerous polyps and stops its progress into the malignant stage. We need to re-educate our medical professionals and parents alike who consider CRC as the disease of old. Colorectal Cancer in young people on the rise and the mortality rate is higher due to late diagnosis. Young patients with rectal bleed or other alarm signs should evaluated with early endoscopy rather than the unfortunately common practice of attributing these symptoms to hemorrhoids. Early diagnosis of colon cancer increases the chances of recovery. In the advanced stage of CRC, the first metastasis site commonly the liver, so it becomes increasingly difficult to treat it.

Diagnosis of Colorectal Cancer:

Most cases of colon cancer originate from noncancerous tumors, that grow in the large intestine. Family history, several genetic disorders, diabetes, and a particular lifestyle put a person at an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. Personal and family history, physical examination, and a series of tests are performed to diagnose or stage colorectal cancer.


A special diet followed 48 prior to it. Strong laxatives used to cleanse the colon before this procedure. Then a long tube with a camera inserted into the colon to examine it for any polyp growth. If any polyp found a sample of it sent for biopsy to rule out the presence of any cancerous cells.

A similar procedure called flexible sigmoidoscopy used to examine a small portion of the colorectal area.

Double Contrast Barium Enema

The patient advised to fast for several houses than Barium is used to obtain a clear x-ray image. In this procedure, the doctor will inject the Barium solution into the colon through the rectum and will smooth it through the use of the air pump. An x-ray then conducted where polyps or tumors look like the dark outlines.

If a biopsy indicates the presence of cancerous or precancerous cells. Then X-ray, ultrasound, or CT scans are advised to know the extent of spread to other organs. The size and extent of tumors and spread of it to other body parts used for cancer staging and making decisions about treatment options.

Treatment Options:

Treatment options are based upon careful evaluation of several factors including type and stage of colorectal cancer, age and overall health of the patient, and any underly disease. The aim to remove Cancer, prevent its spread, or mitigate uncomfortable symptoms, through the use of single or multiple treatment regimes.

  • Surgery used to remove part or all of the colon called colectomy. During the procedure part of the cancerous colon, surrounding tissue and Lymph nodes are removed. Then the remaining healthy part reattached or a stoma( surgical opening) made in the abdomen to pass out waste material.
  • Endoscopy also used to remove localized, small cancerous polyps.
  • Laparoscopic surgery making several small incisions for the removal of large polyps.
  • Palliative surgery only used to relieve symptoms associated with blockage, pain, or bleeding. This type of surgery used for untreatable advanced stage cancers only
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  • Chemotherapy the use of cancer medication to help stop the spread of cancer cells. These medicines interfere with the DNA of rapidly dividing cells, so they kill Cancer cells and rapidly dividing body cells alike, but body cells can recover while cancerous cells can’t. Chemotherapy given in cycles to ensure body cell recovery but still carries significant side effects including, nausea, hair loss, fatigue, anemia, and elevated body temperatures.
  • Radiation therapy kills cancer cells by a focus on high energy gamma rays on them. External radiation used through machines or internal radiation through the implant of radiative material near cancerous tissue. Side effects of radiation include nausea, vomiting, fatigue, localized skin burn, appetite loss, and weight loss.
  • Either single or a combination of the above-mentioned procedures can use for the treatment of colorectal cancer.



Breastfeeding your baby is a personal choice of a mother and child. But it offers various benefits for your child’s, development and for the mothers as well. It is recommended by WORLD HEALTH’S ORGANIZATION (WHO). To all the mothers to breast-feed their babies for six months minimum, to achieve optimal growth.  Below mentioned some great benefits of breastfeeding for you and your baby.

Mothers who breastfeed are more likely to return to their pregnancy weight than mothers who formula feed. Breastfeeding reduces the risk of long-term obesity. Additionally. Those mothers who breast-feed are less likely to develop breast cancer or osteoporosis in their lives. The size of the uterus also returns to normal size more quickly due to breastfeeding. releases oxytocin and prolactin, hormones that relax the mother and make her feel more nurturing towards the baby.

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Breast milk provides easily absorbed nutritional components, antioxidants, enzymes, immune properties, and live antibodies from mother. Breast milk contains antibodies that help in making your baby’s immune system strong. which in turn helps your baby’s body to fight infections. Breastfed babies are less likely to suffer from an ear or respiratory tract infection. Breastfeeding prevents your baby’s body from developing chronic diseases such as diabetes, blood pressure, etc. Breast milk promotes a healthy weight for your baby! The chances of obesity reduced in breastfed babies mainly because of the presence of gut bacteria which affects the fat storage. Breastfeeding also promotes healthy eating patterns because from time to time the baby starts to self-regulate their milk intake. Studies have found out that breastfeeding makes the children smarter and they usually tend to have higher IQ levels than formula-fed babies. Breastfed babies have fewer respiratory problems, less diarrhea, constipation, and gastroenteritis.

There are benefits of life that breast-feeding may result in such as the lower risk of breast cancer, osteoporosis, arthritis, and rheumatoid. Less hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. The maternal bond is also strengthened with breastfeeding. So, the more months a woman the greater the beneficial effect.



The growth of cancerous cells within the lining of the stomach is known as stomach cancer. Stomach cancer is one of those cancers, which are difficult to diagnose at the early stages, as most of the people do not show any symptoms in the beginning. The typical signs and symptoms of stomach cancer include severe stomachaches, bloated tummy, fatigue, severe indigestion that is always present, heartburns, unexplained & persistent nausea, and sudden weight loss. These symptoms usually appear slowly with time. However, one should always stay alert and consult a doctor if the symptoms worry you!

Generally, cancer begins when mutation or an error occurs in the DNA of a cell. Scientists are still not sure about what makes the cancer cells start growing in the stomach but there are a few factors that can increase the risk of cancer.

Few factors that increase the risk of stomach cancer:

Ulcers in your stomach occur when there is an infection of the common bacteria, H. pylori. It damages and inflames the inner layer of the stomach and also causes lymphoma of the stomach.

Smoking found to associated with stomach cancer according to a recent study. A diet, which high in smoke, can also cause gastric cancer.

Epstein-Barr Virus or EBV infection is a human herpesvirus and found to a cause of gastric cancer. The best way to avoid it is to have separate glasses, silverware, or toothbrushes and avoiding sexual contact with the infected persons.

Lifestyle plays an important role as well. Eating too much meat, salty, spicy or processed food, alcohol intake. And a lack of physical activity can also cause stomach cancer.

Exposure to Asbestos, naturally occurring silicate minerals have been linked to gastric and colon cancers. It also causes other gastrointestinal problems and lymphoma.

Obesity contributes to gastric cancer or specifically of the upper stomach, according to a study. Physiologically, the chronic inflammation associated with obesity increases the risk of gastric cancer.

Stomach Polyps are abnormal masses or growths on the lining of your stomach. Most of them harmless but some even turn into cancer if not treated or persistent.

It not clear what exactly causes, but there are many ways that can avoid it. Such as daily exercise or workout keeps your overall body fit and in good health. A diet rich in fiber and proteins keep your stomach healthy and provide you your strength. Avoid passive and all sorts of smoking. it’s not only bad for your lungs but for your other internal organs as well.

Pancreatic Cancer

Pancreatic Cancer:

The pancreas is a gland that lies across the back of your upper abdomen. Behind the stomach and guts (intestines) and in front of the spine and just above the level of your belly button (umbilicus). Its shape like a cylinder and about 15cm long and 3cm wide. Two main exocrine and endocrine functions.

Pancreatic cancer is the malignant tumor of the pancreas. Pancreatic Cancer one of the toughest and deadliest cancers. It tough because hard to detect at early stages and shows symptoms only. when it gains some pace or development. According to research, there are more than 1250 people worldwide who diagnosed with pancreatic cancer every day. Late diagnosis and the large number of people being diagnosed every other day. Because of a lack of awareness about the disease. People are not really aware of the risks involved by adopting certain lifestyle habits that can damage your pancreas for good. Being obese or too thin. chain-smoking or passive smoking, unhealthy diet such as fried food, and fast food every day.

it all increases your risk of developing pancreatic cancer. It highly advised to maintain a balanced weight and a healthy diet. which involves eating more green vegetables and fresh fruits. Avoid all kinds of smoking, direct or passive. A slow poison for your pancreas. However, the exact reason for pancreatic cancer still not known. And a lot of research being done in this regard. But you can adopt a healthy lifestyle in order to avoid it at least.

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It diagnosed through clinical evaluation by the doctors for the presence of jaundice or lumps in the tummy. Blood and Tumor marker tests are done. Ct scans, MRI, ERCP, and EUSvalso done in order to confirm the diagnosis and for a clearer picture of the disease.

The most potentially curable way of treating pancreatic cancer to perform surgery. To completely remove the tumors. The commonest surgical operation performed to remove pancreatic cancer a pancreaticoduodenectomy. Often called a Whipple’s procedure. This operation takes 5-7 hours and involves removing most. if not all of the pancreas, the gall bladder, the bile duct, and part of the small intestine. Then comes the Chemotherapy which an add – on to the treatment. It performed to remove any cancer that may still there after surgery or sometimes. when surgery not possible.

No cancer journey an easy one. November is pancreatic cancer awareness month. So let’s join hands together in order to spread education and awareness. About this deadly disease and also let’s honor all our survivors and those who still fighting this battle. Feel free to contact us for more details about the disease and book an appointment for yourself.

Liver Transplant in Children

Liver Transplant in Children

A liver transplant is considered as a last resort for patients suffering from end-stage liver diseases. And for acute and chronic liver diseases. Because of improvements in medicine, diagnosis, and technology. The pediatric patient survival rate increased. Even the youngest of children chance of surviving an end-stage liver disease. if the transplantation performed on time.

There are some common diseases in infants, and children which leads them towards liver transplantation. One of the most common ones Biliary Artesia.  A disease in which the bile ducts become obstructed. And stop the bile from passing through the liver into the intestines. Wilson’s disease, a hereditary disorder in which the cooper starts to accumulate in the liver. And causes severe damage to it one of the reasons why a pediatric liver transplant needed. Sometimes, the bile ducts become narrow due to severe scarring. This disease is called Sclerosing Cholangitis that can also cure liver transplantation. Acute Liver Failure due to some drugs/medication, or toxins requires immediate liver transplantation. Genetic factors are also responsible for certain liver diseases in children such as Tyrosinemia and Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.

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The living donor selection plays an equally important role in pediatric liver transplantation as well. The person donating the liver must blood-related to the child. having a BMI of less than 35. must not any kind of acute or chronic disease. And should good physical health. The surgery takes at least six to eight hours. The damaged liver replaced with a healthy one by the surgeon. The old one sent for the examination into a laboratory.

The recovery period depends on the health condition of the child. But the hospital stays approximately 10-12 days and 14 weeks for infants. Your child sent to the Liver Intensive Care Unit. where taken care of by an expert team, of doctors and nurses, completely monitored through machines as well. About the life expectancy, the one-year pediatric liver transplant patient survival rate is 95%.

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